JOURNAL OF EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE AND HEALTHCARE

Table of Contents

2019 Month : July Volume : 6 Issue : 27 Page : 1858-1862

STUDY OF EFFECT OF DURATION AND SEVERITY OF SMOKING ON SERUM MAGNESIUM LEVELS IN YOUNG SMOKERS

Balaji K.1, Prithvi Shankar2, Tessy Thomas3

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Prithvi Shanker,
Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry,
DM WIMS, Naseera Nagar, Meppadi,
Wayanad-673577, Kerala.
E-mail: prithvibmc@gmail.com
DOI: 10.18410/jebmh/2019/379

ABSTRACT
BACKGROUND
The commonest method of smoking today is through cigarettes. Global surveys show a fourfold increase in prevalence of smoking habit between ages 15-29 years in last decade. Magnesium is involved in more than 300 essential metabolic reactions. Smoking causes magnesium deficiency due to decreased supply and reduced absorption caused by disturbances in the digestive system functions.

METHODS
150 young smokers, between the age group of 18 to 40 years were included in the study and classified into groups A, B & C based on the years of smoking habit (less than 5 years, 6-10 years and more than 10 years respectively), with a minimum of smoking 2 cigarettes per day for a minimum period of 1 year. Based on the number of cigarettes smoked per day the subjects were classified into mild, moderate and heavy (2-5 cigarettes/day, 6-10 cigarettes/day, more than 10 cigarettes/day, respectively). Serum magnesium levels were measured in all the study subjects and compared based on the age of the subjects, duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked/day. Smoking index was calculated by multiplying the Number of cigarettes smoked per day x duration (years).

RESULTS
The two-way ANOVA indicated that severity of smoking (p<0.001) and duration of smoking (p <0.001) were significant predictors of serum magnesium levels. As interaction was not statistically significant (p= 0.058), Tukey's procedure was used to conduct pairwise comparisons. There was a statistically significant difference in magnesium levels between all three different levels of severity and duration of smoking (p<.0001). There was a very high negative correlation between serum magnesium and smoking index (r= -0.85) and moderate correlation with age (r= -0.685).

CONCLUSIONS
Severity of smoking and duration of smoking were significant predictors of low serum magnesium levels. There is a statistically significant difference in magnesium levels between all three different levels of severity and duration of smoking. There is a high negative correlation between serum magnesium levels and smoking index. Low serum magnesium levels may be considered as the earliest risk marker of cardiovascular and other non-communicable diseases in young smokers.

KEYWORDS
Effect of Smoking, Serum Magnesium, Young Smokers.